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Barbieri, Riv. Nuovo Cim. E. Haber and G. Kane, Phys. Rept. 117 (1985) 75; N. Polonsky, Supersymmetry: Structure and Phenomena, Springer, 2001. 39 33. K. Kaul, Rev. Mod. Phys. 55 (1983) 449; R. Sekhar Chivukula, A. Cohen, and K. Lane, Nucl. Phys. F. King, Rept. Prog. Phys. 58 (1995) 263; G. Cvetic, Rev. Mod. Phys. T. H. Simmons, Strong Dynamics and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, hep-ph/0203079, to appear in Phys. Rept. 39 34. W. T. Hill, and M. Lindner, Phys. Rev. T. Hill, Phys. Lett. B266 (1991) 419.

5. There is nothing but the Standard Model with a Higgs boson below the Planck scale. The hierarchy is a mere accident. If the last possibility is not seriously being considered, all conceivable scenarios predict new physics at scales considerably below the Planck scale. , 6 Recently, extra-dimension models have been developed where the solution of the Einstein equations for the background gravitational field contains a large exponential factor, thus giving a potential explanation for the hierarchy problem in terms of the fundamental space-time geometry [28].

When constructing the effective action at higher orders, maintaining unitarity in scattering processes, one has to replace local gauge invariance by a global symmetry, BRS invariance [21]. For the physical fields, this symmetry coincides with gauge invariance. To make the gauge-fixing term BRS invariant one has to introduce additional ghost fields and a corresponding interaction term. This setup is necessary for correctly defining interactions at short distances (absorbing UV divergences), but it does not interfere with spontaneous symmetry breaking which is a long-distance phenomenon.

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2-Generator conditions in linear groups by Wehrfritz B.A.F.

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